Our students gave their opinions both in Spanish and in English.

  • a) Pues bien, teniendo en cuenta lo anteriormente expuesto, podrías decir, en tu opinión, cómo afectan las decisiones políticas, sobre la economía de un país (crecimiento de empleo, cuidado medioambiental, innovación, etc.).

    However, taking into account the above, you might say, in your opinion, how do they political  decisions affect  the economy of a country?
    Student's answer.-

    First we must frame what is  a political decisions.-
    Our legislators are politicians who we vote in elections, and we choose among them who rules so the executive and the legislative powers cannot be separated from politics. Therefore, a legislative decision is a political decision, and so is a government decision, in addition it can be economic, cultural, social, etc. That is why politics is everywhere, and all citizens have the obligation to comply, because we are in a constitutional state .
    Following this line of reasoning,  decisions such as granting or supporting SMEs, exempt or tax certain activities, taxing others, regulating activities that promote employment, service sector research, industrial,  activities, etc., directly affect  the country's economy, affecting employment, social welfare, environmental influences, etc., in short, decidedly political decisions affect the present and future of the country.
    b) Unas de las grandes consecuencias de esta crisis ha sido el desempleo. Comenta como influye o influiría esta situación a nivel individual y familiar y sobre la sociedad en general.

    One of the major consequences of this crisis is unemployment. Discuss how this situation influences or would influence  individuals and families and  society in general.
    Student's answer.-

    Unemployment does not affect all people equally. Factors such as age, the time a person is unemployed, family responsibilities the personality type and the way a person  reacts to adversity, are determining factors for work. Working is the means we have to feel fulfilled and participate in society, on the other hand unemployment is insecure and devalue social loneliness, being inactive affects us negatively. Unemployment leads to a reduction in revenues and therefore requires us to change our style of life, we tend to be cautious and dramatically reduce costs and this affects our family and social relationships. We can  have negative psychological consequences such as guilt, or shame. So, the way we react to unemployment depends on the personality of each one, where a series of feelings and negative emotions, such as shame powerlessness, guilt or ineptitude are combined, not only do we fail to earn money, but also our role as family provider loses value and sense of frustration and powerlessness to the given situation.
     a) Estas de acuerdo con él, sobre lo que se esta hablando, de  hacer una “reforma” sobre  la reforma laboral llevada a cabo en estos últimos años.

    Do you agree with him about what is being discussed, that is to say to make a "reform" of the labor reform carried out in recent years.
    Student's answer.-

    The labor reform carried out by the last government has brought  a substantial loss of employment and social rights for all workers.
    The aim of this reform was the business recovery plan in relantización thus giving way to a reduction in the  unemployment rate and the recovery of jobs.
    Actually, these goals have not been achieved, it is shown in the precariousness of the working conditions, the creation of jobs, 370,000 in just five years and the aboundance of temporary jobs.
    Mr. Cosentino said that the reform should be deeper, as exemplified by his company, which has grown in this time of crisis. I do not think so, Mr. Cosentino speaks from your business perspective, we know that any business  seeks the steady growth of profits, i industrial investments have been made, and not from the humanistic and social point of view. We would ask Mr. Cosentino the percentage of profits that his group redirected to social welfare, or to what extent employment contracts applied in his business improve and exceed the requirements of the industrial sector; and according to his answer, I could drastically change my opinion.
     b) En qué sentido ha afectado la crisis, según él, a su empresa. En lineas generales compartes su opinión respecto a como ha afectado la crisis a la actividad empresarial del país.

    In what way, according to him, the crisis  has affected his company? In general terms  do you share their views on how the crisis has affected the business of the country?
    Student's answer.-

    Since then, the Cosentino Group has seen a positive opportunity  in the crisis, it has taken advantage of the circumstances that the crisis offers, new businesses based on RED, creates quality products which gives added value to the brand. A strong industrial investment  is heeded and the company opens uo to the export market, global business, opening factories and distribution centers in different countries.
    This growing business activity has led to the creation of hundreds of jobs and economic and industrial benefits.
     c) En cuanto a la innovación, consideras que es importante a la hora de internacionalizarse una empresa. ¿Por qué?

    In terms of innovation, do you think it s important when a company internationalize. Why?
    Student's answer.

    Mr. Cosentino has overcome and has managed to get the positive aspects out of all his failures.
    This has led him to regenerate and adapt to every circumstance, this experience has given rise to a constant RED in his company and his business success, is based on that, it is clear the importance of internationalization and globalization of the group, innovation as a way to create new and better resources  to improve economic, social, technological benefits, etc., to increase the prestige of the company.
     d) ¿Compartes con él su opinión sobre como pueden afectar las decisiones políticas sobre la economía del país? Razona tu respuesta.

    Do you share his your opinion on how they can affect policy decisions on the economy? Explain your answer.
    Student's answer.

    The government effort to correct economic problems, however subjectively, has led  brought them to a confrontation between the working classes and workers with the business world, emphasizing in the mechanisms of the economy, greater regulation in the management and labor reforms generalization, with the strategy of further liberalization of business, a financial and industrial policy scheme posed to tackle the economic crisis market.
    The lack of coherent measures to adjust the economy of the present Government is explained by the interdependence between the political and economic sphere of the country, the lack of clarity on the ultimate goal of public action that is to maximize social welfare of all Spanish or maximum clarity for the economic objective of the business world with maximum benefit, as a bridge to reach  greater social welfare hence the excessive importance that has been given to the economic policy decisions.
    For example: the hotel sector before the crisis had got a profit between 27 and 36 percent in management, with an occupancy of 93% average annual accommodation capacity, currently, there are higher profits in management to those mentioned above , with the average occupancy almost the same, but with a big difference today, staff  has been reduced by over 30%; the average salary well below pre-crisis levels, with many workers and that are losing social benefits, often in distress (unpaid overtime, precarious contracts and part-time schedules 10 to 12 hours, many working without social welfare system) Anyway, that for me is the inconsistency of policy decisions on  economy.

    e) En cuanto a la formación, da mucha importancia a la Formación Profesional (igual opinión tiene otro gran empresario en Canarias, el Sr. Amid Achi, empresario del año, distinguido por la Cámara de Comercio de Santa Cruz de Tenerife http://www.laopinion.es/economia/2015/10/08/amid-achi-empresario-ano/632174.html) además considera que la formación debes ir acompañada con el estudio de idiomas, imprescindible para poder “crecer”. 

        ¿Estas de acuerdo con sus palabras?  

    Do you agree with his words?

    ¿Cómo afecta la opinión de estos grandes empresarios a tu formación? 

    How does the view of these big employers affect your training?

    Student's opinion.

    Knowledge of English as an international language is a requirement for personal development and for a complete professional development level.
    In the work area , knowledge of a second language like English provides a very important advantage in these times, so learning English and other languages is now a necessity.
    Example nº 2 Activity nº1. Students' opinions.

     a) Pues bien, teniendo en cuenta lo anteriormente expuesto, podrías decir, en tu opinión, cómo afectan las decisiones políticas, sobre la economía de un país (crecimiento de empleo, cuidado medioambiental, innovación, etc.).
    Obviamente la crisis y las diferentes decisiones adoptadas por los Gobiernos tales como: reformas laborales, políticas monetarias, etc., afectan a la economía de un país. Se crea un ambiente general de inestabilidad y de falta de confianza en los mercados internacionales y en el mercado interno. De hecho, en países con éste tipo de inestabilidad, la gente sale a la calle, porque no sienten los beneficios de un crecimiento económico y social. Se reducen los presupuestos para la innovación, para las áreas más susceptibles como la educación, sanidad y cultura. Las inversiones se reducen en todos los ámbitos y las economías no crecen, y como consecuencia de ello: desempleo, aumentan las tensiones sociales, altas tasas de inflación y de interés por carencia de políticas económicas coherentes, aumentan costes y precios de las empresas por no tener inversiones en tecnología que las haga más competitiva. En definitiva, las decisiones políticas de una país afectan de manera directa las economías.
    a) Well, bearing in mind previously exhibited, could you  say, in your opinion, how they affect the political decisions, on the economy of a country (growth of employment, environmental care, innovation, etc.)?
    Obviously the crisis and the different decisions adopted by the  Governments as:  labor reform, political reforms, etc., affect  the economy of a country. It is created a general atmosphere of instability and of absence of confidence in the international markets and in the internal market. In fact, in countries with this  type of instability, the people go out to the street, because they don´t feel the benefits of an economic and social growth. The budgets  for the innovation, for the most capable areas as education, health and culture are cut down. The investments diminish in all scope and the economies don´t grow, and as consequence of it: unemployment, they increase the social tensions, high rates of inflation and of interest in lack of  economic coherent policies, increase costs and prices of the companies for not having investments in technology that makes them more competitive. Finally, the political decisions of one country affect in a direct way the economies.
    b) Unas de las grandes consecuencias de esta crisis ha sido el desempleo. Comenta como influye o influiría esta situación a nivel individual y familiar y sobre la sociedad en general
    Si partimos de la teoría de las jerarquías de las necesidades básicas de Abraham Harold Maslow, el trabajo es una necesidad básica de autodesarrollo para los individuos, lo cual supone un estatus de estabilidad dentro de una sociedad. Es por ello que a nivel individual influye negativamente, se sienten inseguros, pierden el contacto con las personas que mantenían relación en el ámbito laboral, supone una disminución de ingresos y comienza a realizar cambios en su vida y hay una reducción de gastos significativa.
    A nivel familiar al principio puede unir más las relaciones, pero si la situación de desempleo se extiende en el tiempo, habrá tensión y desequilibrio familiar, ya que el nivel de vida al cual se habían acostumbrado tiene que reducirse considerablemente.
    A nivel social afecta las situaciones de desempleo de manera negativa, lo vimos con la crisis en España donde aprox. hubo 600.000 desalojos hipotecarios, producto de la situación de incremento de despidos durante ese período y la falta de recursos para afrontar los pagos. Esto genera una incertidumbre social, que hace a su vez, que se reduzca el gasto familiar ante la incertidumbre.
    Sin embargo en otros casos, ésta situación hace que las personas se reinventen y consideren otras opciones de emprender o buscar nuevas alternativas de formación.
    b) One of the big consequences of this crisis has been the unemployment. He comments how it influences or it would influence this situation at individual and familiar level and on the society in general.
    If we start from the theory of the hierarchies of the basic needs of Abraham Harold Maslow, the work is a basic need of autodevelopment for the individuals, which supposes a status of stability inside a society. It is for it that at individual level it influences negatively, they feel insecure, lose the contact with the people  who were supporting relation in the labor sphere, this situation supposes a decrease of income and begins to realize changes in their life and there is a significant reduction of expenses.
    At familiar level at first it can join more the relations, but if the situation of unemployment spreads in the time, there will be tension and familiar imbalance, because the standard of living to which they had become accustomed has to be  reduced considerably.
    At social level it affects the situations in unemployment of a negative way, we saw it with the crisis in Spain where about there were 600.000 mortgage evictions notices, product of the situation of increase of dismissals during this period and the absence of resources to confront the payments. This generates a social uncertainty, which it makes in turn,  reduce the familiar expense.
    Nevertheless in other cases, this  situation causes people to reinvent themselves and consider other options to tackle or to look for new alternatives  new of formation.
     2. Entrevista Al Sr. Francisco Martínez Consentino.
    a) Estas de acuerdo con él, sobre lo que se está hablando, de hacer una “reforma” sobre la reforma laboral llevada a cabo en estos últimos años.
    Obviamente habrá reformas, por ejemplo, la que comenta él de permitirle realizar más turnos, incluyendo sábados y domingos para incrementar la productividad de la empresa, no me parece mal, siempre y cuando esa medida repercuta en nuevas contrataciones y salarios justos de acuerdo con los días de la semana que fueren y los turnos realizados. Si estoy de acuerdo en reformar ciertos puntos por mencionar uno, el hecho de que las empresas aprovechen de los beneficios que les da el Estado y al mismo tiempo puedan despedir a un trabajador sin causa justificada, aún cuando la empresa ni siquiera haya incurrido en pérdidas y además corre por cuenta del trabajador demostrarlo; el hecho de que los empresarios puedan deducirse por el trabajador y además deducirse el 50 % del salario, en los casos de compatibilización de un trabajador que trabaje y al mismo tiempo perciba de el paro. Éstas entre otras.
    a) Do you agree with him, on what is being spoken, of doing a "reform" on the labor reform carried out in the latter years.
    Obviously there will be reforms, for example, the one that he comments to allow him to make more shills, including on Saturdays and Sundays to increase the productiveness of the company, I like, provide that such a measure affects in new hirings and fair wages in accordance with the days of the week that will be and the shills made turns. If I agree in reforming certain points to mention one, the fact that the companies  use the benefits that the State gives them and at the same time they could dismiss a worker without due cause, even if the company has not even incurred losses and also it the worker has to demonstrate it ; the fact that employers may be deducted by the employee and also deducted 50% of salary, in the case of compatibility of a worker who works and simultaneously receives from unemployment. These among others.
    b) ¿En qué sentido ha afectado la crisis, según él, a su empresa?. En líneas generales compartes su opinión respecto a cómo ha afectado la crisis a la actividad empresarial del país.
    La Crisis lo que ha hecho es hacer crecer a los empresarios que han cambiado su mentalidad, han  innovado y buscado nuevas alternativas para internacionalizarse.  Ha logrado salir hacia afuera y exportar. Si comparto éste punto de vista, suele suceder que en tiempos de crisis las empresas se reinventan para poder ser competitivas en el exterior. De hecho, en el 2014 las exportaciones en España crecieron un 2,41%  respecto al año 2013.
    b) In what sense has it affected the crisis, according to him, to his company? In general terms do you share his opinion with regard to how the crisis has affected  the managerial activity of the country.
    The Crisis what it has done is to make  the businessmen grow who have changed their mentality, they have introduced and looked for new alternative to  internacionalize. It has managed to go  and to export. I share this  point of view, it usually happens that in times of crisis the companies are reinvented to be able to be competitive in the foreign. In fact, in 2014 in Spain exports grew 2.41% over 2013.
    c) En cuanto a la innovación, ¿consideras que es importante a la hora de internacionalizarse una empresa? ¿Por qué?
    La innovación y la internacionalización son conceptos que forman uno. Nos encontramos en un escenario internacional cada vez más cambiante, donde las empresas y las personas que la componen tienen que adaptarse a los cambios y aprender las nuevas formas de hacer las cosas. La innovación es necesaria para hacer de las empresas más competitivas y que puedan diferenciarse de otras, en ésta sociedad que no es ajena a la globalización. Porter (1990) (ostenta la cátedra Bishop William Lawrence en la Escuela de Negocios Harvard (HBS) y dirige el Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness de la misma escuela de negocios) afirmó: "La competitividad de una nación depende de la capacidad de su industria para innovar y mejorar. La empresa consigue ventaja competitiva mediante innovaciones".
    Las empresas deben reinventarse y ofrecer un producto o servicio que le permita exportar con calidad y llegar al mayor número de personas.
    c) As for the innovation, do you think that a company is important at the time of internacionalize?  Why?
    The innovation and the internationalization are concepts that form one. We are in a more and more changeable international stage, where the companies and the people who compose it have to adapt  to the changes and learn and learn new ways of doing things. The innovation is necessary to do  the companies more  competitive  and that could differentiate themselves from others, in this one society which is not alien to the globalization. Porter (1990)(holds the Bishop William Lawrence Professor at Harvard Business School (HBS) and manages the Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness of the same business school) affirmed: "The competitiveness of a nation depends on the aptitude of its  industry to innovate and to improve. The company obtains competitive advantage by means of innovations ".
     The companies must be reinvented and offer a product or service that it allows them to export with quality and to come to the biggest number of people.
    d) ¿Compartes con él su opinión sobre cómo pueden afectar las decisiones políticas sobre la economía del país? Razona tu respuesta.
    En cualquier país del mundo, no sólo en España, las decisiones políticas afectan las economías de los países. En incertidumbre política, las inversiones tanto locales como extranjeras suelen minimizarse, por la falta de seguridad y estabilidad. La inestabilidad política afecta al empleo, a las empresas, a la sociedad, a las inversiones, al crecimiento económico. 
    d) Do you share with him his opinion about how they can affect the political decisions on the economy of the country? Give reasons.
    In any country of the world, not only in Spain, the political decisions affect the economies of the countries. In political uncertainty,  both, local and foreign investments usually get minimized, for the  absence of certainty and stability. Political instability affects  the employment,  the companies,  society,  investments and economic growth.
    e) En cuanto a la formación, da mucha importancia a la Formación Profesional (igual opinión tiene otro gran empresario en Canarias, el Sr. Amid Achi, empresario del año, distinguido por la Cámara de Comercio de Santa Cruz de Tenerife además considera que la formación debes ir acompañada con el estudio de idiomas, imprescindible para poder “crecer”.
      ¿Estás de acuerdo con sus palabras?
     Con respecto a los idiomas estoy 100% de acuerdo con ambos, hemos hablado de la globalización, de crisis económicas, de decisiones políticas acertadas o no, por lo que bajo todo éste panorama las personas tienen que priorizar los idiomas dentro de su formación para que no sea una limitante a la hora de salir de sus países, o trabajar en una multinacional o una empresa local que exporta, o en el sector turístico donde es indispensable y más si tomamos en cuenta que en el año 2014 España recibió 65 millones de turistas internacionales. Con respecto a la Formación Profesional, estoy de acuerdo con ambos, ya que el mercado laboral en España ha cambiado y demanda más profesionales titulados en Formación profesional que perfiles universitarios. La crisis ha variado el panorama a la hora de realizar las contrataciones, se necesita más formación específica en los puestos a cubrir. Se ha formado en España muchos más universitarios de los que el mercado laboral ha podido absorber.
    Do you agree with his words?
     With regard to the languages ​​I  agree 100% with both, we have talked about globalization, economic crisis, of right or wrong political decisions, so under this panorama people have to prioritize languages ​​in their training in order not to be a limiting factor for leaving their countries, or working in a multinational or a local exporting company, or in the tourism sector where it is essential especially if we consider that in 2014 Spain received 65 million international tourists. With regard to vocational training, I agree with both, as the labor market in Spain has changed and demand more vocational studies graduates than university professional profiles. The crisis has changed the outlook when making hiring, more specific training in the positions to be filled is required. In Spain there aare too many university graduater, more than the labour market could have absorbed.
    ¿Cómo afecta la opinión de estos grandes empresarios a tu formación?
    Son empresarios que han apostado por la innovación y han construido dos grandes empresas y lo que me ha llamado mucho la atención y que resulta para mí muy importante es la magnitud que le dan a los idiomas, a la Formación Profesional, a la innovación y al impulso que le da el Grupo Consentino a la Exportación.
     How does the opinion of these big businessmen  affect to your formation?
    They are businessmen who have invested in innovation and have constructed two big companies and what it has drawn my attention very much  and that it is  very important to me is the magnitude that they give  to the languages, to the Professional training, to the innovation and to the impulse that the Group Consentino gives  to the Exportation.

    Example nº 3 Activity nº1

    a) It’s well known that  Economy is a very important aspect of the political life. In fact, the government has a specific role in  economy because it regulates a lot of areas affecting directly the economy such as taxation, interest rates…

    Political decisions can be very different if the government belongs to a right wing party or a left wing one. Usually, left sided parties believe in a controlled economy, and think strongly that wealth must be distributed equally among all the people.

    On the other hand, parties on the right side think that the economic system must be the Capitalism.  Political laws in this area will be focused on private property, capital accumulation and competitive markets.

    A protectionist tendency would affect the importations reducing them, however would be welcomed for a non-protectionist policy.

    Public investments can encourage the local economy because private companies can arrange many projects and that means new employment opportunities   and consequently the unemployment rate could drop. 

    b) Unemployment affects negatively to the individuals. Those who are unemployed can suffer not only economical or physical problems but even psychological or feel isolated in  society. 

    Without regular incomes an unemployed is not able to maintain his and his family basic needs, such as eating or health care.

    In conclusion Unemployment has a negative impact on many areas of the family life and society.

    And talking about influences in society we can say that unemployed people contribute less to the economy and that reduce the economical life hood of a local economy. 

    Therefore, some studies about crime shows that crime rate rise and fall with unemployment rates. So in periods with high rates of unemployment one of the consequences is that crime rates go up. 

    a) I totally agree with him. I think that the last labour reform has been successful in some areas.

    Consentino talks about the benefits in terms of shift systems in his company so he thinks that it is only necessary to change those areas of the reform, which haven’t met the expectations. 

    b) Economical crisis has aimed Consentino to internationalize his company. He believes that crisis is a way to grow up and learn. He supports the idea that Spanish entrepreneurs will be happy at the end because of the crisis and they will loose typical fears like the fear to internationalize or to export goods. 

    I personally think that this crisis has been very hard for the Spanish companies. However you always can get positive things in a negative environment so I agree with Mr Consentino that companies in Spain have learnt many valuable ideas for the future matters.

    c) Innovation is important to create new goods or systems that can be attractive for an international market. It could be easier to go inside a foreign market if you purchase an innovative product that it doesn’t exit in that country.

    In addition innovation can reduce producing costs allowing the company to place lower prices goods in foreign markets. 

    d) I share his opinion about the influence of the political decisions on economy.
    Foreign and local investors are worried about the political stability and they want to invest in a financial balanced country.

    I think investors feel more confident in a stable political and economic environment because it can minimize certain risks. 

    e) Regarding vocational studies both Cosentino and Achi concluded that there aren’t enough training vacancies in Spain.

    To me budget in Education should be increased because unemployment rates are very high so it’s necessary to be trained in areas demanding employment. 
    I agree with them in the foreign languages area. It is very important especially in tourism areas to be fluent in languages like English because that can help to get the excellence. 

    What those entrepreneurs think make stronger my thinking that continuous training plays an important role in my professional life.